Use your concept map or plan
Write your assignment using your map or plan to guide you. As you write, you may well get new ideas or think about ideas in slightly different ways. This is fine, but check back to your map or plan to evaluate whether that idea fits well into the plan or the paragraph that you are writing at the time. Consider: In which paragraph does it best fit? How does it link to the ideas you have already discussed?
For every paragraph, think about the main idea that you want to communicate in that paragraph and write a clear topic sentence which tells the reader what you are going to talk about. A main idea is more than a piece of content that you found while you were researching, it is often a point that you want to make about the information that you are discussing. Consider how you are going to discuss that idea (what is the paragraph plan). For example, are you: listing a number of ideas, comparing and contrasting the views of different authors, describing problems and solutions, or describing causes and effects?
Use linking words throughout the paragraph. For example:
- List paragraphs should include words like: similarly, additionally, next, another example, as well, furthermore, another, firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally, and so on.
- Cause and effect paragraphs should include words like: consequently, as a result, therefore, outcomes included, results indicated, and so on.
- Compare and contrast paragraphs should include words like: on the other hand, by contrast, similarly, in a similar way, conversely, alternatively, and so on.
- Problem solution paragraphs should include words like: outcomes included, identified problems included, other concerns were overcome by, and so on.
Some paragraphs can include two plans, for example a list of problems and solutions. While this is fine, it is often clearer to include one plan per paragraph.
Look at your plan or map and decide on the key concepts that link the different sections of your work. Is there an idea that keeps recurring in different sections? This could be a theme that you can use to link ideas between paragraphs. Try using linking words (outlined above) to signal to your reader whether you are talking about similar ideas, whether you are comparing and contrasting, and so on. The direction that your thinking is taking in the essay should be very clear to your reader. Linking words will help you to make this direction obvious.
Different parts of the essay:
While different types of essays have different requirements for different parts of the essay, it is probably worth thinking about some general principles for writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions. Always check the type of assignment that you are being asked to produce and consider what would be the most appropriate way to structure that type of writing.
Remember that in most (not all) writing tasks, especially short tasks (1,000 to 2,000 words), you will not write headings such as introduction and conclusion. Never use the heading ‘body’.
Writing an introduction:
Introductions need to provide general information about the topic. Typically they include:
- Background, context or a general orientation to the topic so that the reader has a general understanding of the area you are discussing.
- An outline of issues that will and will not be discussed in the essay (this does not have to be a detailed list of the ideas that you will discuss). An outline should be a general overview of the areas that you will explore.
- A thesis or main idea which is your response to the question.
Here is an example of an introduction:
It is often a good idea to use some of the words from the question in the introduction to indicate that you are on track with the topic. Do not simply recount the question word for word.
Writing the body:
- Each paragraph should make a point which should be linked to your outline and thesis statement.
- The most important consideration in the body paragraphs is the argument that you want to develop in response to the topic. This argument is developed by making and linking points in and between paragraphs.
Try structuring paragraphs like this:
- Topic sentence: open the paragraph by making a point
- Supporting sentences: support the point with references and research
- Conclusive sentence: close the paragraph by linking back to the point you made to open the paragraph and linking this to your thesis statement.
Here is an example of a body paragraph from the essay about education and globalisation:
As you write the body, make sure that you have strong links between the main ideas in each of the paragraphs.
Writing the conclusion:
This is usually structured as follows:
- Describe in general terms the most important points made or the most important linkage of ideas
- Do not include new information, therefore it does not usually contain references
- End with a comment, a resolution, or a suggestion for issues that may be addressed in future research on the topic.
Here is an example conclusion from the essay on education:
Map and Climate
For more on each territory, please click on that territory above.
Because Australia is in the southern hemisphere, the seasons are opposite to those in Europe and North America. Australia is often referred to as a land of diversity in terms of climate: from tropical rainforests, to golden beaches, to sparse deserts, to vast grazing lands to the rich coral reef, bursting with marine life.
During the winter in Western Australia, or "dry" season (April-September), temperatures generally range from 24 degrees Celsius (or 75 degrees Fahrenheit) to around 34°C (93°F). However, average temperatures vary depending on specific location; coastal temperatures tend not to vary much throughout the day, while further inland, the temperature may reach 40°C (104°F), and then plummet towards zero during the night.
During the summer, or "wet" season in Western Australia (October-March), temperatures are generally in the mid to high 30s, with high humidity. People more accustomed to cooler climates may find this weather unpleasant, but visitors looking for some sunshine tend to find it enjoyable.
The southern coastal areas of the South West region of Australia have an average temperature of about 32°C (86°F) in the summer and 14°C (57°F) in the winter.
Climate in the Northern Territory varies significantly between the northern part (known as the “Top End”), and the southern extremities. In the Top End, the wet season runs from November until April, and typically has high humidity and monsoonal rains and storms. Temperatures run from 25°C (77°F) to 33°C (91°F). The dry season runs from May until October, and is characterized by warm, dry, sunny days and cool nights. Temperatures range from 21°C (69°F) to 32°C (89°F), and humidity levels are much lower than those of the wet season.
In the southern parts of the Northern Territory, the climate is more extreme. The wet season runs from October to April, and daytime temperatures are generally in the high 30s, with cool, dry nights. The dry season runs from May to September, and nighttime temperatures can drop below zero.
South Australia’s summer lasts from December to February; the average temperature is 28°C (82°F), but can often reach higher than 30°C (86°F). Northern parts of the state experience extremely hot conditions, as much of these parts are comprised of desert. Nights in these areas are often very cold. Winters in South Australia last from March to November, and most of the rainfall that occurs in this area happens during June, July, and August. Temperatures during this time tend to hover around 16°C (61°F).
Queensland experiences warm summers and mild winters. Average summer and winter temperatures in Brisbane range from 9°C (48°F) and 29°C (84°F), while temperatures in Cairns average between 17°C (62°F) and 31°C (87°F).
New South Wales
Temperatures in New South Wales can be very high in the northwest and very cold in the southern alpine regions, but generally the climate across New South Wales is very mild. Over half of New South Wales is arid to semi-arid, but most areas of the eastern portion have a temperate climate and high levels of rainfall, ranging from humid subtropical on the northern coast and oceanic on the southern coast.
Seasons in Melbourne are more varied than those of some other areas in Australia, with warm summers, mild springs and autumns, and crisp winters. Summer in Melbourne last from December to February, autumn from March to May, winter from June to August, and spring from September to November. Top temperatures in Melbourne are usually in January and February, when the weather is often dry with hot spells. June and July are the coldest months, and October is the wettest.
Although it gets both hot and cold, Tasmania has a temperate maritime climate, which means temperatures tend not to very much throughout the year. The warmest months in Tasmania are December, January, February, and March, when temperatures range from 17°-23°C (62°-73°F). Winter runs from May to August, and temperatures generally fall between 3°-11°C (37°-51°F).
Living in OZ